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Entosphenus tridentatus  (Richardson, 1836)

Pacific lamprey
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Entosphenus tridentatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Entosphenus tridentatus (Pacific lamprey)
Entosphenus tridentatus
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Cephalaspidomorphi 头甲鱼纲 (八目鳗) (lampreys) > Petromyzontiformes (Lampreys) > Petromyzontidae (Northern lampreys) > Lampetrinae
Etymology: tridentatus: tridentatus meaning three-toothed (Ref. 1998).

环境 / 气候 / 范围 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 89241); 深度上下限 0 - 1508 m (Ref. 96339).   溫帶, preferred ?; 65°N - 32°N, 133°E - 114°W

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North Pacific: Bering Sea coasts of Asia and Alaska southward to the Yuhutu River, Hokkaido, northern Japan and Punta Canoas, central Baja California, Mexico. The populations were, at one time, split into two groups (Ref. 10015) as Entosphenus tridentatus tridentatus which ranged from the Columbia River to Alaska, and Entosphenus tridentatus ciliatus which ranged from Klamath River southwards (Ref. 1998). This division no longer holds (Ref. 1998). Freshwater resident populations exist in Culrus Lake and the Columbia River, British Columbia, the Sprague River in Oregon, the Goose Lake in Oregon/California, and the Klamath and Shasta rivers and Copco Lake in California (Ref. 12269).
北太平洋: 亞洲的白令海海岸與阿拉斯加州向南至 Yuhutu 河,北海道,日本北部與 Punta Canoas ,中央的墨西哥的下加利福尼亞。 族群是,同時,分割為如 叉牙楔齒七鰓鰻〔Entosphenus tridentatus〕 tridentatus 的二個群 (參考文獻 10015) 範圍從到阿拉斯加州的哥倫比亞河 , 與 叉牙楔齒七鰓鰻〔Entosphenus tridentatus〕 ciliatus 範圍從克拉瑪斯河南方.(參考文獻 1998) 這個部份已經不存在.(參考文獻 1998) 淡水居留族群在 Culrus 湖與哥倫比亞河,卑詩省存在, 在奧勒岡州的 Sprague 河, 鵝湖在奧勒岡州/加州, 與在加州的克拉瑪斯河與沙斯塔山河與 Copco 湖.(參考文獻 12269)

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 2850); common length : 41.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 12193); 最大体重: 500.00 g (Ref. 27436); 最大年龄: 9 年 (Ref. 72464)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

Characterized by the presence of 3 (rarely 2) large sharp teeth on the supraoral bar and three sharp points on each of the central lateral tooth plates. Dorsal fins arise far back on the body, the anterior fin lower and shorter, higher in males; lower lobe of caudal fin larger than upper, the lobes joined to dorsal and anal fins; anal fin rudimentary, virtually absent in males. Adults from the sea blue-black to greenish above, silvery to white below; spawning adults become reddish brown (Ref. 27547). Other diagnostic characters: oral disc as wide or wider than head; usually 64-71 trunk myomeres; dark blue or brown above, light or silver below (Ref. 86798). Adults: 9.6-80.0 cm TL. Specimens 38-62 cm TL weigh 120-510 g wet weight. Body proportions, as percentage of TL (based on 274 specimens measuring 9.6-71.6 cm TL): prebranchial length, 9.8-18.0; branchial length, 7.8-12.6; trunk length, 40.3-54.0; tail length, 23.6-34.9; eye length, 1.3-4.5; disc length, 4.6-9.1. The urogenital papilla length, as a percentage of branchial length, in two spawning males measuring 21.1-21.7 cm TL, 12.0-12.5. Trunk myomeres, 60-71 (may be as low as 57 and as high as 78). Dentition: marginals, 48-62; supraoral lamina, 3 unicuspid teeth, the median one being smaller; infraoral lamina, 5-6 unicuspid teeth, predominantly 5; 4 endolaterals on each side; endolateral formula, typically 2-3-3-2, the first endolateral rarely unicuspid and the second and third endolaterals rarely bicuspid; 2 rows of anterials; first row of anterials, either 1 or 5 unicuspid teeth; exolaterals absent; 1 row of posterials, 12-21 teeth, of which 0-5 may be bicuspid and the remainder unicuspid; transverse lingual lamina, 14-23 unicuspid teeth, the median one slightly enlarged; longitudinal lingual laminae parentheses-shaped, each with 20-27 unicuspid teeth [50-63 according to McPhail and Lindsey (1970)]. Velar tentacles, 10-18, with tubercles; the dorsal wings may each consist of up to 5-6 long tentacles that reach the median tentacle. Median tentacle about the same length as the lateral ones immediately next to it. Four of five specimens from the Sprague River did not possess wings and had 7-10 tentacles. Body coloration (preserved), dorsal, lateral, and ventral aspects bluish gray in older individuals and ventral aspect either dark gray or almost white in recently metamorphosed individuals. Lateral line neuromasts unpigmented or darkly pigmented. Caudal fin pigmentation, +++. Caudal fin shape, rounded or spade-like. Oral fimbriae, 94-105. Oral papillae, 12-18 (Ref. 89241).
特徵为出现了 3(很少地 2) 大的锐利牙齿在嘴上的横带与三个点尖每个有中央的侧齿板.(参考文献 27547) 背鳍出现相距遥远地在身体,前面的鳍上低而比较短的, 比较高的在雄性中; 尾鳍的低叶大于上面的, 叶连到了背鳍与臀鳍; 臀鳍不发达的, 事实上不存在于雄性.(参考文献 27547) 成鱼从蓝黑色到呈绿色的上方, 银色到腹面白色的; 产卵期的成鱼变成红褐色。 (参考文献 27547)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Anadromous, but also a number of permanent freshwater resident populations (Cultus Lake, British Columbia; Sprague River, Klamath River Basin, Oregon). In marine waters, adults mostly inhabit the mesopelagic zone down to 800 m depth and have been documented as far as 117 km off the coast of Oregon. In fresh waters, ammocoetes and adults inhabit lakes, rivers, and creeks. Ammocoetes occur in soft sediments in shallow areas along stream banks (Ref. 89241); in silt, mud, and sand of shallow eddies and backwaters of streams (Ref. 5723). Spawning adults are found in gravel riffles and runs of clear coastal streams; feeding adults usually in the ocean, but landlocked populations occur (Ref. 1998). Stops feeding once upstream spawning migration is underway (Ref. 1998). Parasitic adults attach themselves to the side or undersurface of its prey, from which it draws blood and body fluids as food. Preys on fishes and sperm whales (Ref. 6885). Adults are found in the Strait of Georgia from December to mid-June. The duration of the feeding phase at sea has been estimated at 20-42 months. In British Columbia, return to fresh water begins as early as April and is completed by September. In the Columbia River, prior to the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1941, spawning migrations of 800 km up to Kettle Falls, Washington occurred. In order to cross barriers such as falls, they use their suctorial disc to attach to the vertical surfaces and slowly make their way up. In British Columbia spawning is in June to the end of July, while in Oregon, it begins in May at water temperatures of 10-15 C and continues through July. Fecundity, 98,300-238,400 eggs/female in Oregon populations from Clear, Trout, and Cow creeks, respectively, in the John Day, Molalla, and Umpqua river basins. Death of spawners follows 3-36 days after spawning. Eggs are eaten by two species of fish in the Umatilla River, Oregon (Ref.89241). Rarely consumed as food; prepared fresh or smoked (Ref. 6885). Sometimes processed into meal (Ref. 27436). The Native American tribes of the mid-Columbia River Plateau have an ongoing tradition dating back hundreds of years of harvesting Pacific Lamprey. The adults are caught either by hand or dipnet in areas where they congregate prior to spawning. They are prepared for human consumption either by drying or roasting. Caloric values for Pacific Lamprey range from 5.9 to 6.3 kcal/g wet weight. Their oil is also extracted and used for medicinal purposes. Ammocoetes are used as bait for introduced Micropterus dolomieu in the John Day River, Oregon. In 1812, Americans of European descent obtained Pacific Lamprey from the Umatilla tribe of Oregon for the purposes of consumption. In the early 1900s, fur trappers utilized Pacific Lamprey as bait for coyotes. A fishery for adult lamprey has existed at Willamette Falls on the Willamette River, Oregon at least since 1913. That year, 24.5 metric tons were harvested and ground into fishmeal for young hatchery salmon. Between 1943 and 1949, 740 metric tons in total were harvested and used for vitamin oil, food for livestock, poultry, and fishmeal. In 1994, about 1.8 metric tons were exported to Europe for human consumption. The North Carolina Biological Supply House regularly collects adults from this locality for use as teaching material (Ref.89241). The effects of Pacific lamprey attacks on commercial species needs further studies (Ref. 6885).

产卵的成鱼被发现于碎石激流与清洁的水流海岸的溪流; 成鱼通常在大海中觅食, 但是陆封的族群出现;(参考文献 998) 在浅水涡流中的灰、泥及砂与溪流中的死水中的 ammocoetes.(参考文献 5723) 寄生的成鱼把自己吸附到它的猎物的侧面或下面, 从它平局血液与体液当作食物。 鱼与抹香鲸的猎物.(参考文献 6885) 溯溪产卵开始即停止进食.(参考文献 1998) 很少被当作食物; 制成烟熏或新鲜食用.(参考文献 6885) 有时加工成一餐。 (参考文献 27436) 太平洋八目鳗攻击对经济鱼种的影响需要更高深的研究。 (参考文献 6885)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

In the spring following the migration into fresh water, a male and a female dig a nest. In the spawning act, the female attaches herself to a rock and the male fastens its sucker on the head of the female and coils around the female. The two then vibrate and eggs and sperms are released (Ref. 27547). Males spawn with more than one female in different nests (Ref. 1998). Adults die 1-14 days after spawning (Ref. 1998), while other sources say adults die 3-36 days after spawning (Ref. 89241). Larvae remain buried in the stream bottom for up to 5 or 6 years and return to the sea after changing into the adult form (Ref. 1998). The parasitic adults spend 12-20 months in the sea before moving upstream to spawn (Ref. 1998).北太平洋: 亞洲的白令海海岸與阿拉斯加州向南至 Yuhutu 河,北海道,日本北部與 Punta Canoas ,中央的墨西哥的下加利福尼亞。 族群是,同時,分割為如 叉牙楔齒七鰓鰻〔Entosphenus tridentatus〕 tridentatus 的二個群 (參考文獻 10015) 範圍從到阿拉斯加州的哥倫比亞河 , 與 叉牙楔齒七鰓鰻〔Entosphenus tridentatus〕 ciliatus 範圍從克拉瑪斯河南方.(參考文獻 1998) 這個部份已經不存在.(參考文獻 1998) 淡水居留族群在 Culrus 湖與哥倫比亞河,卑詩省存在, 在奧勒岡州的 Sprague 河, 鵝湖在奧勒岡州/加州, 與在加州的克拉瑪斯河與沙斯塔山河與 Copco 湖.(參考文獻 12269)

主要参考文献更多的… Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)

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